Banned Raw Materials

E Numbers
Health specialists around the world are becoming increasingly convinced that the additives in processed foods are firmly linked to the dramatic rise in Children's Allergies. However, despite mounting evidence, there has been very few restrictions placed on the food manufacturers in the UK and the USA.

Number Name Comments
E100 Curcumin orange-yellow colour; derived from the root of the curcuma (turmeric) plant, but can be artificially produced; used in cheese, margarine, baked sweets and fish fingers
E101 Riboflavin, Riboflavin-5'-phosphate 'Vitamin B2' and colour; occurs naturally in green vegs, eggs, milk, liver and kidney; used in margarine and cheese
E102 Tartrazine FD&C Yellow No.5; known to provoke asthma attacks (though the US FDA** do not recognise this) and urticaria (nettle rash) in children (the US FDA** estimates 1:10 000); also linked to thyroid tumours, chromosomal damage, urticaria (hives) and hyperactivity; tartrazine sensitivity is also linked to aspirin sensitivity; used to colour drinks, sweets, jams, cereals, snack foods, canned fish, packaged soups; banned in Norway and Austria
E104 Quinoline Yellow FD&C Yellow No.10; used in lipsticks hair products, colognes; also in a wide range of medications; cause dermatitis; banned in USA and Norway
E107 Yellow 7G yellow colour; the HACSG* recommends to avoid it; people who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it; typical products are soft drinks; banned in Australia and USA
E110 Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S FD&C Yellow No.6; used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks and canned fish; synthetic; also in many medications including Polaramine, Ventolin syrup; side effects are urticaria (hives), rhinitis (runny nose), nasal congestion, allergies, hyperactivity, kidney tumours, chromosomal damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food; seen increased incidence of tumours in animals; banned in Norway
E120 Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmines red colour; made from insects; rarely used; the HASCG* recommends to avoid it
E122 Azorubine, Carmoisine red colour; coal tar derivative; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; typical products are confectionary, marzipan, jelly crystals; banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway  
E123 Amaranth FD&C Red No.2; derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name; used in cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals; can provoke asthma, eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some animal tests, possibly also cancer; banned in the USA, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries
E124 Ponceau 4R, Cochineal Red A FD&C Red No.4; synthetic coal tar and azo dye, carcinogen in animals, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; banned in USA & Norway
E127 Erythrosine FD&C Red No.3; red colour used in cherries, canned fruit, custard mix, sweets, bakery, snack foods; can cause sensitivity to light; can increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism, was shown to cause thyroid cancer in rats in a study in 1990; banned in January 1990, but not recalled by the US FDA**; banned in Norway
E128 Red 2G Banned in Australia and many other places except UK
E129 Allura red AC FD&C Red No.40; Orange-red colour used in sweets, drinks and condiments, medications and cosmetics, synthetic; introduced in the early eighties to replace amaranth which was considered not safe due to conflicting test results; allura red has also been connected with cancer in mice; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Norway
E131 Patent blue V Banned in Australia, USA and Norway
E132 Indigotine, Indigo carmine FD&C Blue No.2, commonly added to tablets and capsules; also used in ice cream, sweets, baked goods, confectionary, biscuits, synthetic coal tar derivative; may cause nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing problems and other allergic reactions. Banned in Norway
E133 Brilliant blue FCF FD&C Blue Dye No.1; used in dairy products, sweets and drinks, synthetic usually occurring as aluminium lake (solution) or ammonium salt; banned in Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Norway
E140 Chlorophylis, Chlorophyllins green colour occurs naturally in all plants; used for dyeing waxes and oils, used in medicines and cosmetics
E141 Copper complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins olive colour, no adverse effects are known
E142 Green S green colour; synthetic coal tar derivative; used in canned peas, mint jelly and sauce, packet bread crumbs and cake mixes; banned in Sweden, USA and Norway
E150(a) Plain caramel dark brown colour made from sucrose; the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. used in oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey, biscuits, pickles
E150(b) Caustic sulphite caramel see E150(a)
E150(c) Ammonia caramel see E150(a)
E150(d) Sulphite ammonia caramel see E150(a)
E151 Brilliant Black BN, Black PN coloor; coal tar derivative; used in brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway
E153 Vegetable carbon black colour, charcoal pigment; used in jams, jelly crystals, liquorice; only the vegetable derived variety permitted in Australia, banned in the United States
E154 Brown FK banned in USA
E155 Brown HT (Chocolate) brown colour, coal tar and azo dye; used in chocolate cake mixes; can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; also known to induce skin sensitivity; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway
E160(a) Carotene, alpha-, beta-, gamma- orange-yellow colour; human body converts it to 'Vitamin A' in the liver, found in carrots and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables
E160(b) Annatto (Arnatto, Annato), bixin, norbixin red colour; derived from a tree (Bixa orellana); used as a body paint, fabric dye, digestive aid and expectorant; used to dye cheese, butter, margarine, cereals, snack foods, soaps, textiles and varnishes; known to cause urticaria (nettle rash), the HACSG* recommends to avoid it
E160(c) Paprika extract, capsanthin, capsorubin red colour derived from red peppers.
E160(d) Lycopene red coloured carotenoid found in tomatoes and pink grapefruit, can cause decreasing risk of cancer
E160(e) Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) orange colour, no adverse effects are known
E160(f) Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid (C 30) orange colour, no adverse effects are known
E161(b) Xanthophylls - Lutein yellow colour derived from plants, naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg yolks
E161(g) Xanthophylls - Canthaxanthin yellow colour possibly derived from animal sources (retinol); the pigment is found in some mushrooms, crustacea, fish, flamingo feathers
E162 Beetroot Red, Betanin purple colour derived from beets; no adverse effects are known
E163 Anthocyanins violet colour matter of flowers and plants; seems safe
E170 Calcium carbonate mineral salt, used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders; may be derived from rock mineral or animal bones; sometimes used to deacidify wines and firm canned fruit and veg.; toxic at 'high doses'
E171 Titanium dioxide white colour used in toothpaste and white paint, pollutes waterways; no adverse effects are known
E172 Iron oxides and hydroxides black, yellow, red colour used in salmon and shrimp pastes; toxic at 'high doses'
E173 Aluminium avoid it, banned in some countries
E174 Silver avoid it, banned in some countries
E175 Gold avoid it, banned in some countries
E180 Latolrubine BK avoid it, banned in some countries
E181 Tannic acid, tannins clarifying agent in alcohol; derived from the nutgalls and twigs of oak trees; occurs naturally in tea
Number Name Comments
E200 Sorbic acid either obtained from berries or synthesised from ketene; possible skin irritant
E201 Sodium sorbate no known adverse effects
E202 Potassium sorbate no known adverse effects
E203 Calcium sorbate no known adverse effects
E210 Benzoic acid also known as flowers of benzoin, phenlycarboxylic acid, carboxybenzene; added to alcoholic beverages, baked goods, cheeses, gum, condiments, frozen dairy, relishes, soft sweets, cordials and sugar substitutes; used in cosmetics, as an antiseptic in many cough medications and an antifungal in ointments; can cause asthma, especially in those dependant on steroid asthma medications, is also reputed to cause neurological disorders and to react with sulphur bisulphite (222), shown to provoke hyperactivity in children; obtained from Benzoin, a resin exuded by trees native to Asia
E211 Sodium benzoate used as antiseptic, as a food preservative and to disguise taste, as of poor-quality food; orange soft drinks contain a high amount of it, upto 25mg per 250ml; also in milk and meat products, relishes and condiments, baked goods and lollies; used in many oral medications including Actifed, Phenergan and Tylenol; known to causes nettle rash and aggravate asthma
E212 Potassium benzoate people with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions. for using see 210
E213 Calcium benzoate see 212
E214 Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate avoid it, banned in some countries
E215 Sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate avoid it, banned in some countries
E216 Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate possible contact allergen
E217 Sodium propyl p-hydroxybenzoate avoid it, banned in some countries
E218 Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate allergic reactions possible, mainly affecting the skin
E219 Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate avoid it, banned in some countries
E220 Sulphur dioxide derived from coal tar; all sulphur drugs are toxic and restricted in use (in USA, FDA** prohibits their use on raw fruits and vegetables), produced by combustion of sulphur or gypsum; known to provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1; typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products
E221 Sodium sulphite decontaminating agent used in fresh orange juice; see 220
E222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite see 220
E223 Sodium metabisulphite treating agent, see 220
E224 Potassium metabisulphite see 220
E225 Potassium sulphite see 220
E226 Calcium sulphite avoid it, banned in some countries
E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite avoid it, banned in some countries
E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite see 220
E230 Biphenyl, Diphenyl banned in some countries; can be used for agricultural purposes; typical products are citrus fruit
E231 Orthophenyl phenol banned in some countries; can be used for agricultural purposes; typical products are pears, carrots, peaches, plums, prunes, sweet potatoe, citrus fruit, pineapples, tomatoes, peppers, cherries, nectarines
E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol see 231
E233 Thiabendazole banned in some countries, can be used for agricultural purposes, typical products are citrus fruits, apples, pears, potatoes, bananas, mushrooms, meat, milk
E234 Nisin antibiotic derived from bacteria; found in beer, processed cheese products, tomato paste
E235 Natamycin mould inhibitor derived from bacteria; sometimes used medically to treat candidiasis; can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea and skin irritation;.typical products are meat, cheese
E236 Formic acid avoid it, banned in some countries
E237 Sodium formate avoid it, banned in some countries
E238 Calcium formate avoid it, banned in some countries
E239 Hexamethylene tetramine avoid it, banned in some countries
E249 Potassium nitrite colour fixative and curing agent for meat; nitrites can effect the body's ability to carry oxygen, resulting in shortness of breath, dizziness and headaches; potential carcinogen; not permitted in foods for infant and young children
E250 Sodium nitrite may provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions, potentially carcinogenic, restricted in many countries, can combine with chemicals in stomach to form nitrosamine, the HACSG* recommends to avoid it
E251 Sodium nitrate also used in the manufacture of nitric acid, as a fertiliser and in fermented meat products (see 250)
E252 Potassium nitrate may be derived from waste animal or vegetable matter; used in gunpowder, explosives and fertilisers, and in the preservation of meat; may provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions; potentially carcinogenic; restricted in many countries (see 249)
E260 Acetic acid main component of vinegar, synthetically produced from wood fibres; used in pickles, chutneys, and sauces
E261 Potassium acetate food acid; should be avoided by people with impaired kidney function; typical products are sauces, pickles
E262 Sodium acetate, Sodium diacetate food acid, acidity regulator; no known adverse effects
E263 Calcium acetate food acid, acidity regulator; by product in the manufacture of wood alcohol; used to make acetic acid (vinegar) and in the production of dyers mordants
E264 Ammonium acetate can cause nausea and vomiting
E270 Lactic acid food acid, acidity regulator; produced by heating and fermenting carbohydrates in milk whey, potatoes, cornstarch or molasses; difficult for babies to metabolise; used in sweets, dressings, soft drinks (sometimes beer) infant formulas and confectionary
E280 Propionic acid all propionates are thought to be linked with migraine headaches; propionates occur naturally in fermented foods, human perspiration and ruminants digestive tract, also can be derived commercially from ethylene and carbon monoxide or propionaldehyde or natural gas or fermented wood pulp; produced when bacteria decompose fibre; commonly used in bread and flour products;
E281 Sodium propionate may be linked to migraines, typical products are flour products
E282 Calcium propionate see 281
E283 Potassium propionate see 281
E290 Carbon dioxide propellant, coolant, derived from lime manufacture; may increase the effect of alcohol; typical products are wine, soft drinks, confectionary
E296 Malic acid derived from fruit or synthetic; infants and young children should avoid it
E297 Fumaric acid derived from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F. officianalis or from the fermentation of glucose with fungi; can be used to flavour, acidify, as an antioxidant or raising agent used in soft drinks and cake mixes
Number Name Comments
E300 Ascorbic acid flour treating agent, 'vitamin C'; may be made synthetically from glucose, naturally occurs in fruit and vegetables; added to products as diverse as cured meat, breakfast cereals, frozen fish and wine
E301 Sodium ascorbate sodium salt of vitamin C
E302 Calcium ascorbate vitamin C, may increase the formation of calcium oxalate stones
E303 Potassium ascorbate potassium salt of vitamin C
E304 Ascorbyl palmitate, Ascorbyl stearate fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, same function as E300
E306, E307,
E308, E309
Tocopherols, alpha, gamma, delta 'vitamin E'; found in many vegetable oils, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize; works as an antioxidant for fatty acids and tissue fats, preventing vitamin A from oxidation; used in margarine and salad dressings
E310 Propyl gallate used to prevent rancidity in oily substances; derived from nutgalls; may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methaemoglobinemia; used in oils, margarine, lard and salad dressings, sometimes used in packaging
E311 Octyl gallate see 310
E312 Dodecyl gallate see 310
E317 Erythorbic acid produced from sucrose
E318 Sodium erythorbate produced from E317
E319 Tert-ButylHydroQuinone (TBHQ) petroleum based; the HACSG* recommends to avoid it. May cause nausea, vomiting, delirium. A dose of 5g is considered fatal. Typical products are fats, oils, margarine
E320 Butylated hydroxy-anisole (BHA) petroleum derivative, retards spoilage due to oxidation; used in edible oils, chewing gum, fats, margarine, nuts, instant potato products, polyethylene food wraps; not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects, in large doses caused tumours in lab animals, banned in Japan in 1958, official committees of experts recommended that it be banned in the UK, however due to industry pressure it was not banned, McDonald's eliminated BHT from their US products by 1986, see also Butyl compounds
E321 Butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT) petroleum derivative; see E320
E322 Lecithins emulsifier derived from soy beans, egg yolks, peanuts, corn or animal resources; non toxic but overdose can upset the stomach, kill the appetite and cause profuse sweating; used to allow combination of oils in margarine, chocolate, mayonnaise, milk powder; must be chosen vegetable type
E325 Sodium lactate derived from milk (lactic acid); may contain pork rennin or whey in process,
young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions
E326 Potassium lactate see 325
E327 Calcium lactate see 325
E328 Ammonium lactate see 325
E329 Magnesium lactate see 325
E330 Citric acid food acid, naturally derived from citrus fruit, used in biscuits, canned fish, cheese and processed cheese products, infant formulas, cake and soup mixes, rye bread, soft drinks, fermented meat products
E331 Sodium citrates food acid; no known adverse effects
E332 Potassium citrates food acid; no known adverse effects
E333 Calcium citrates food acid; no known adverse effects in small quantities
E334 Tartaric acid food acid, obtained from unripe fruit, grape juice;
no known adverse effects in small quantities
E335 Sodium tartrates food acid; no known adverse effects
E336 Potassium tartrates food acid; no known adverse effects
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate food acid; no known adverse effects
E338 Phosphoric acid food acid, derived from phosphate ore; used in cheese products;
no known adverse effects
E339 Sodium phosphates mineral salt, used as a laxative and a fixing agent in textile dyeing; high intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium
E340 Potassium phosphates see 339
E341 Calcium phosphates mineral salt found in rocks and bones; used in medicines as an antacid and polishing agent in enamels
E343 Magnesium phosphates essential mineral, anticaking agent found in salt substitutes
E350 Sodium malates no known adverse effects
E351 Potassium malate no known adverse effects
E352 Calcium malates no known adverse effects
E353 Metatartaric acid no known adverse effects
E354 Calcium tartrate seems safe
E355 Adipic acid food acid from the root adipose (pertaining to fat?)
E357 Potassium adipate no known adverse effects
E363 Succinic acid avoid it, banned in some countries
E3120 Sodium fumarate food acid, salt of fumaric acid (derived from plants of the genus Fumaria esp. F.officianalis)
E366 Potassium fumarate no known adverse effects
E367 Calcium fumarate no known adverse effects
E370 1,4-Heptonolactone avoid it, banned in some countries
E375 Niacin vitamin B3; naturally occurs in bean, pea and other legumes, milk, egg, meat, poultry, and fish; at doses in excess of 1,000 mg per day can cause liver damage, diabetes, gastritis, eye damage, and elevated blood levels of uric acid (which can cause gout); at amounts as low as 50-100 mg may cause flushing (harmless but painful), headache, and stomach-ache especially if taken on an empty stomach
E380 Tri-ammonium citrate may interfere with liver and pancreas function
E381 Ammonium ferric citrates essential mineral, food acid derived from citric acid; used as a dietary iron supplement in breakfast cereals and dietary formulas
E385 Calcium disodium EDTA avoid it, banned in some countries
Number Name Comments
E400 Alginic acid thickener and vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; used in custard mix, cordial, flavoured milk, ice blocks, thickened cream and yoghurt; no known adverse effects in small quantities, large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients
E401 Sodium alginate see 400
E402 Potassium alginate see 400
E403 Ammonium alginate see 400
E404 Calcium alginate see 400
E405 Propylene glycol alginate thickener and vegetable gum, derived from petroleum; see separate entry
E406 Agar thickener and vegetable gum derived from red seaweed; sometimes used as a laxative, found in manufactured meats and ice cream
E407 Carrageenan a fibre extracted from seaweed, it has recently been linked with cancer because it may become contaminated when ethylene oxide is added to an inferior product, this results in ethylene chlorohydrins forming, a highly carcinogenic compound; linked to toxic hazards, including ulcers and cancer; the most serious concerns relate to degraded carrageen, which is not a permitted additive; however, native carrageen an, which is used, may become degraded in the gut
E410 Locust bean gum derived from Carob or Locust bean tree Ceratonia siliqua; used in lollies, cordials, essences, some flour products, dressings, fruit juice drinks; frequently used as a caffeine-free chocolate substitute; may lower cholesterol levels
E412 Guar gum derived from the seeds of Cyamoposis tetragonolobus of Indian origin; fed to cattle in the US; can cause nausea, flatulence and cramps, may reduced cholesterol levels
E413 Tragacanth resin form the tree Astragalus gummifer; used in foods, drugs including nasal solutions, elixirs and tablets; also used as a binder in cosmetics; possible contact allergy
E414 Acacia gum derived from the sap of Acacia Sengal; easily broken down by the human digestive system; possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes
E415 Xanthan gum derived from the fermentation of corn sugar with a bacterium
E416 Karaya gum derived from the tree Sterculia urens; often used in conjunction with Carob (E 410), in ice cream, custard and sweets, as a filler for its capability to multiply its volume by 100 times with the addition of water; possible allergen
E417 Tara gum derived from the Tara bush, Caesalpinia Spinosa is indigenous to Ecuador and Peru and is grown in Kenya
E420 Sorbitol artificial sweetener and humectants; derived from glucose, either obtained from berries or synthesised; used in lollies, dried fruit, pastries, confectionary, low calorie foods, pharmaceutical syrups and ophthalmic preparations and is the seventh most widely used preservative in cosmetics; not permitted in foods for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance
E421 Mannitol artificial sweetener and humectants; derived from seaweed or the manna ash tree; possible allergen, not permitted in infant foods due to its ability to cause diarrhoea and kidney dysfunction, also may cause nausea, vomiting; typical products are low calorie foods
E422 Glycerol humectants and sweetener; oily colourless alcohol; derived by decomposition of natural fats with alkalis; usually as a by-product of soap making using animal fat or vegetable oil; can be obtained from petroleum products sometimes synthesised from propylene or fermented from sugar; used in flexible coatings on sausages and cheeses, also in crystallised and dried fruit, liqueurs and vodka. "Glycerine has been shown to protect against DNA damage induced by tumour promoters, ultraviolet lights and radiation, presumably via free radical scavenging"; large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels. Typical products are liquors, confectionary, dried fruit, low calorie foods
E430 ? ?
E431 Polyoxyethylene stearate ?
E432 Polysorbate 20 avoid it, banned in some countries
E433 Polysorbate 80 emulsifiers derived from animal fatty acids; used as synthetic flavourings, surfactants, defoaming agents and dough conditioners; may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E434 Polysorbate 40 avoid it, banned in some countries
E435 Polysorbate 60 see 433
E436 Polysorbate 120 see 433
E440(a) Pectin naturally occurring in the skins of apples; used to thicken jams, jellies and sauces; large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort
E440(b) Amidated pectin no known adverse effects
E441 Gelatine possible allergen, may contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites beware!
E442 Ammonium phosphatides no known adverse effects
E450 Diphosphates High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium
E460 Cellulose anti-caking agent; no adverse effects known
E461 Methyl cellulose can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction
E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose avoid it, banned in some countries
E464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose no known adverse effects
E4120 Ethyl methyl cellulose no known adverse effects
E466 Carboxy methyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose no known adverse effects
E469 Sodium caseinate no known adverse effects
E470 Fatty acids salts avoid it, banned in some countries
E471 Mono & di glycerides of fatty acids no known adverse effects
E472 Fatty acid esters of glycerides no known adverse effects
E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids no known adverse effects
E474 Sucroglycerides avoid it, banned in some countries
E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids no known adverse effects
E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate no known adverse effects
E477 Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids derived from petroleum; no known adverse effects
E478 ? ?
E479(b) Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids ?
E480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate awaiting results of studies
E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate no known adverse effects
E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate no known adverse effects
E483 Stearyl tartrate avoid it, banned in some countries
E491 Sorbitan monos tearate no known adverse effects
E492 Sorbitan tristearate may increase the absorption of fat-soluble substances
E493 Sorbitan monolaurate avoid it, banned in some countries
E494 Sorbitan mono-oleate avoid it, banned in some countries
E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate avoid it, banned in some countries
Number Name Comments
E500 Sodium carbonates no known adverse effects in small quantities
E501 Potassium carbonates no known adverse effects
E503 Ammonium carbonates irritant to mucous membranes
E504 Magnesium carbonate medically used as an antacid and laxative
E507 Hydrochloric acid safe in small quantities
E508 Potassium chloride large quantities can cause gastric ulceration
E509 Calcium chloride derived from brine
E510 Ammonium chloride should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function. Typical products are flour products
E511 Magnesium chloride magnesium is an essential mineral
E513 Sulphuric acid avoid it, banned in some countries
E514 Sodium sulphates may upset the body's water balance
E515 Potassium sulphates no known adverse effects
E516 Calcium sulphate derived from limestone
E518 Magnesium sulphate a laxative
E519 Copper sulphate essential mineral
E524 Sodium hydroxide avoid it, banned in some countries
E525 Potassium hydroxide avoid it, banned in some countries
E526 Calcium hydroxide no adverse effects in small quantities
E527 Ammonium hydroxide avoid it, banned in some countries
E528 Magnesium hydroxide avoid it, banned in some countries
E529 Calcium oxide safe in small quantities
E530 Magnesium oxide avoid it, banned in some countries
E535 Sodium ferrocyanide no adverse effects known
E536 Potassium ferrocyanide by-product of coal gas production; low toxicity
E540 Dicalcium diphosphate avoid it, banned in some countries
E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate, Acidic avoid it, banned in some countries
E542 Bone phosphate derived from bones; used in dried milk for coffee machines
E544 Calcium polyphosphates avoid it, banned in some countries
E545 Ammonium polyphosphates avoid it, banned in some countries
E551 Silicon dioxide no adverse effects are known in food use
E552 Calcium silicate derived from limestone and diatomaceous earth (the silicified skeletons of diatoms, a single celled plankton), antacid; no known adverse effects
E553(a) Magnesium silicates avoid it, banned in some countries
E553(b) Talc has been linked to stomach cancer, typical products are polished rice, chocolate, confectionary
E554 Sodium aluminium silicate used in salt, dried milk substitutes and flours; aluminium is known to cause placental problems in pregnancy and has been linked to Alzheimer's
E556 Calcium aluminium silicate derived from minerals; used in milk powders; see E554
E558 Bentonite no known adverse effects
E559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin) no known adverse effects
E570 Stearic acid possibly of animal origin; see stearates
E572 Magnesium stearate no known adverse effects in food use
E575 Glucono delta-lactone no known adverse effects
E576 Sodium gluconate avoid it, banned in some countries
E577 Potassium gluconate no known adverse effects
E578 Calcium gluconate no known adverse effects
E579 Ferrous gluconate colour-retention agent; derived from iron and glucose; used in olives, iron supplements; safe in small amounts
E585 Ferrous lactate ?
Number Name Comments
E620 Glutamic acid flavour enhancer, salt substitute; amino acid present in many animal and vegetable proteins, derived commercially from bacteria; might cause similar problems as MSG(621), young children should avoid it
E621 Monosodium glutamate (MSG) flavour enhancer derived from the fermentation of molasses, salt substitute; adverse effects appear in some asthmatic people, not permitted in foods for infants and young children; typical products are canned vegetables, canned tuna, dressings, many frozen foods
E622 Monopotassium glutamate can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps; typical products are low sodium salt substitutes
E623 Calcium diglutamate salt substitute, no known adverse effects
E624 Monoammonium glutamate salt substitute, no known adverse effects
E625 Magnesium diglutamate salt substitute, no known adverse effects
E626 Guanylic acid may trigger gout
E627 Disodium guanylate isolated from sardines or yeast extract; may trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E629 Calcium guanylate may trigger gout
E631 Disodium inosinate may be prepared from meat or sardines; may trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children
E633 Calcium inosinate may trigger gout
E635 Disodium 5'-ribonucleotide may be associated with itchy skin rashes up to 30 hours after ingestion; rashes may vary from mild to dramatic; the reaction is dose-related and cumulative, some individuals are more sensitive than others; typical foods include flavoured chips, instant noodles and party pies; avoid it, banned in some countries
E636 Maltol derived from the bark of larch trees, pine needles, chicory wood, oils and roasted malt; it may be produced synthetically
E637 Ethyl maltol derived from maltol
E640 Glycine & its sodium salt ?
Number Name Comments
E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane silicone based
E901 Beeswaxes glazing agent, used to wax fruit; see bee products; occasionally causes allergic reactions
E903 Carnauba wax derived from a South American palm; used in cosmetics and inks, and to wax fruit;
occasionally causes allergic reactions
E904 Shellac derived from insects; occasionally causes irritations of the skin
E905 Paraffins, Microcrystalline wax may inhibit absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins, mild laxative, there may be a link to bowel cancer; used on sweets, in processing yeast, vitamin tablets, dried fruit, confectionary, collagen
E907 Refined microcrystalline wax avoid it, banned in some countries
E913 Lanolin derived from sheep wool
E920 L-Cystein flour treatment agent derived from animal hair and chicken feathers
E921 L-Cystin see E920
E924 Potassium bromate large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain. Typical products are flour products
E925 Chlorine destroys nutrients, carcinogen, in some areas tab water is contaminated with it, to make it 'safer' to drink. Typical products are flour products
E926 Chlorine dioxide well.....basically see 925
E927 Azodicarbonamide avoid it, banned in some countries
E928 Benzoyl peroxide approved by FDA* for bleaching the carotenoids in refined flours; asthmatics and people with a history of allergies BEWARE, see 210
E931 Nitrogen used in freezing and vacuum packing; seems safe
E932 Nitrous oxide seems quite safe in small quantities
E950 Acesulphane potassium ?
E951 Aspartame artificial sweetener, too many adverse effects possible to list, some people are allergic to aspartame, migraine headaches a common reaction in these people
E952 Cyclamic acid calcium & sodium cyclamate, artificial sweetener; known to cause migraines and other reactions, can be carcinogenic, caused damage ot rats testicles and mouse embriyos in tests, banned in the US and UK due its links with cancer
E954 Saccharines calcium & sodium saccharin; artificial sweetener derived from toluene (a known carcinogen); banned in 1977 in the US, but reinstated subject to strict labelling starting: "Use of this product may be hazardous to your health, this product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals"
E957 Thaumatin artificial sweetener, a protein derived from the tropical plant Thaumococcus danielli; used to sweeten wines, bread and fruit
E9120 Maltitol, Hydrogenated glucose syrup humectant, starch decomposed with digestive enzymes; used in confectionery, dried fruits, low-joule foods; laxative in high concentrations
E967 Xylitol humectant, found in raspberries, plums, lettuce and endives, though produced for commercial purposes from wood pulp; caused kidney stones and a diuretic effect on test rats: a waste of time and the lives of the rats, for the JEFCA in 1983 ruled the tests invalid in relation to humans, the symptoms caused by 'physiological disturbances' in the rats!, we can only imagine what conditions led to upset rats; used in low-joule foods and carbohydratemodified sweets, icecream and jams
E999 Quillaia extract foaming agent, emulsifier, natural surfactant; derived from chilean soap bark tree (Quillaia Saponaria); used in beer and soda; known to promote healing and reduce excessive oiliness in the skin
E1100 Amylase derived from mould mushroom or pig pancreas
E1200 Polydextrose seems safe in small doses
E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone dispersing agent, coating for tablets; used in artificial sweeteners
E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone clarifying agent for wine, colour and colloidal stabiliser
E1400-E1450 Starches no known adverse effects
E1505 Triethyl acetate part becomes alcohol in the body
E1510 Ethanol alcohol
E1517, E1518 Glycerol acetates humectants and solvent derived from glycerol; used to coat fresh fruit in the US
E1520 Propylene glycol humectants, wetting agent, dispersing agent, petroleum based; its glycerine like taste has made it popular for children's medications and other elixirs; used in many topical creams and ointments, cosmetics, hair products and deodorants; has been linked with fatal heart attacks (when given intravenously), central nervous system depression and cosmetic or pharmaceutical contact dermatitis

Name Comments
Albumin a component (protein) from the serum of animal blood
Ambergris derived from whale
Arachidonic acid derived from liver, brain, animal origin gland or oil
Aronia derived from aronia arbutifolia; used as a taste expander in jelly, pudding, powdered deserts, yoghurt, milk deserts, creams, homogenised cheeses, confectionery products, crispy cakes, fruit creams, ice-creams and instant beverages
Aspartic acid derived from aspartame (see E951)
Betaine derived from oil
Biotin colourless crystalline growth vitamin of the vitamin B complex found especially in yeast, liver, and egg yolk; no side effects are known, it is being tested
Caffeine an alkaloid that exists naturally in tea, kola nut and coffee; clearly toxic in high doses, can cause heart palpitations, high blood pressure, vomiting, convulsions, headache, diarrhoea, frequent urination, dehydration, insomnia, stomach cramps, hand tremors, muscle twitches; acts as laxative, also saps the body's supply of calcium; used as a mild stimulant in moderation
Casein phosphoprotein of milk, which has a molecular structure that is extremely similar to that of gluten; celiac people have to avoid
Catalase derived from cattle liver
Cinnamon spice made from bark; may be allergic
Citrus Red No.2 cancer in animals; used for dying skins of oranges
Civet derived from cat
Clove Bud Oil natural essential oil steamed-distilled from clove buds (syzygium atmaticum); may be allergic
Colin bitartrate animal origin tissue
Erythritol produced through a fermentation process that begins with dextrose (a simple sugar derived from corn starch), also derived from calf stomach; used as a sweetener for beverages and confectionery products
Ethyl Vanillin a perfumed artificial vanilla flavouring, it is 3 1/2 times more powerful than the real thing and cheaper too, this explains why manufacturers like to use it in soft drinks, ice creams and baked goods; generally recognized as safe
Evans Blue CI Direct Blue 53 contact dermatitis
FD&C Green No.3 Fast Green bladder tumours
FD&C Red No.102 New Coccine it is an allergen; not permitted to use for foods
FD&C Yellow No.11 contact dermatitis
Fructose this carbohydrate and simple sugar (monosaccharide) occurs naturally in honey and fresh fruits; commercial bakers use it in cakes, breads and cookies to make them brown better
Gentian Violet CI Basic Violet No.3 contact dermatitis
Glucuronolactone, Glucuronic acid a naturally occurring substance in the body, made in the liver from glucose, helps to stimulate the metabolism and thus helps to detoxify the body; also occurs in plants, mainly in gums; also an important constituent of fibrous and connective tissues in all animals
Glycerides components of fats; used to stabilize sausages, lard, vegetable oils, margarines and shortenings, the most widely used of them is monoglyceride citrate, although the FDA* imposes strict limits
Gliadin wheat is the first consideration; it is a major ingredient in breads, rolls, pastry, cakes, cookies and most baked products; noodles macaroni and spaghetti are typically made with wheat; celiac people have to avoid
Guaiacol has been used for decades in compounded products as an expectorant
Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP) cereal gluten; glutens are proteins found in the plant kingdom subclass of monocotyledonae (monocots); these plants are members of the grass family of wheat, oat, barley, rye and triticale and their derivatives, (derivatives include: malt, grain starches, hydrolysed vegetable/plant proteins, textured vegetable proteins, grain vinegars, soy sauce, grain alcohol, flavourings and the binders and fillers found in vitamins and medications.); celiac people have to avoid, celiac disease (also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy) is a chronic disease in which malabsorption of nutrients is caused by a characteristic lesion of the small intestine mucosa; used in smallgoods, packaged convenience foods, gravies and many canned products. It is also present in excipients in pharmaceutical preparations, particularly vitamin and mineral supplements
Hydrolyzed Plant Protein (HPP) same as HVP
Keratin derived from nail or hair
Lipid, Lipoid  
same as erythritol
Maltodextrin, Mdltrin natural, complex carbohydrate, it is not a simple sugar (dextrose, fructose, sucrose etc.); can be derived from potato or corn starch; used in food industry such as sweets, drink, bear, ice cream, preserved fruit, milk powder, malted mild, cake, biscuit and bread, as well as in medicine, textile, printing and dyeing, paper making, casting and petroleum drilling; generally recognized as safe
Menthol crystalline alcohol that occurs especially in mint oils, has the sharp fragrance and cooling properties of peppermint; may be allergic
Metionine derived from protein
Neutral Red contact dermatitis
Nucleıc acid derived from cells
Oleamine, Oleic acid  
Rennet cheese yeast derived from calf stomach
Palmitic acid  
Phenylalanine, Phenylanine essential amino acid; the body uses it to produce some hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, thyroxine, cholecystokinin) and melanin, (a brown skin pigment); cholecystokinin causes suppression of the appetite (this may be useful to sports people who need to reduce body fat or maintain a certain weight); pain relieving effects of phenylalanine may be of use to athletic people who experience pain due to muscle, ligament, joint and tendon injury, inflammation and spasms which commonly result from intense exercise
Phenylephrine decongestant which helps relieve nasal congestion; used in pharmacy; side effects are nausea, stomach upset, loss of appetite, nervousness, restlessness, dizziness, headache, chest pain, rapid heart rate, anxiety, fear, difficult or painful urination and sleeplessness
Phospholipide cheese yeast
PolyVinylPolyPyrrolidone, PVPP white powder added to beer for removing phenolic compounds, then beer is clear and has long shelf life
Salicylate salt of salicylic acid; used in candies, pies, soft drinks and sweet rolls
Quinine dihydrochloride, Quinine sulfate toxic alkaloid extracted from the bark of chinchona tree; used as flavourings in carbonated beverages (primarily bitter lemon and tonic water), bitters and as a treatment for malaria; side effects are headache, nausea, ringing in the ears and blurred vision; FDA strictly limits the amounts of it that can be used
Taurine nonessential amino acid; produced by synthesis of the amino acids methionine and cysteine in the liver, vitamin B6 helps the process; diabetic and hypoglycaemic patients should use taurine under medical supervision as it may have an effect on insulin activity, excessive consumption of taurine may result in diarrhoea and peptic ulcer formation
Thiamine a source of vitamin B1; functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism, keeps appetite, digestive tract and nervous system healthy; adverse effects in high doses are headache, irritability, rapid pulse, trembling and weakness
Thimerosal very effective preservative that contains mercury and has been used in some vaccines and other products; FDA* estimates that it is used in more than 30 licensed vaccines and biologics; mercury is excreted from the body over time; nervous system is very sensitive to all forms of mercury, methyl mercury and metal vapours are more harmful than other forms, exposure to high levels of metallic, inorganic or organic mercury can permanently damage the brain, kidneys and developing foetus, effects on brain functioning may result in irritability, shyness, tremors, changes in vision or hearing and memory problems
Torula high-protein derived from wood sugars as a by-product of the pulping process in paper making; type S is used in baby food and cereals, type F is used in feed supplements for cattle, fish and chickens; allergen for hay fever and asthma
Zinc essential element for humans; naturally occurs in meat (especially liver), fish (especially shellfish), lentils, green leafy vegetables, whole cereals (including wheat germ), brewer's yeast, cheese, milk, nuts, sunflower and sesame seeds; toxic doses of zinc cause vomiting, diarrhoea, restlessness, stomach irritation, depressed immune function and anaemia; excessive zinc doses may decrease the level of HDL ("good") cholesterol and increase the risk for heart disease

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